INDUSTRY REFERENCE MATERIAL

Glossary

Air-dried  Dried in a natural atmosphere. 
   
Air-dry  Having a moisture content in equilibrium with the local atmosphere. The equilibrium moisture content varies with seasons and climates. 
   
Board A piece of sawn, hewn or dressed timber of greater width than thickness. The manufactured product supplied as a rigid sheet. 
   
Checks or splits  Separations which extend along the grain, the result of moisture loss and shrinking during drying. 
   
Clear timber  Timber free of any imperfections. 
   
Conifer  A tree belonging to the order Coniferales of the botanical group Gymnospermae, typically bearing cones and carrying needle-shape or scale-like leaves. Conifers are usually evergreen and produce timber known 
   
Conventional milling  Where the log or flitch is passed over the sawbench. 
   
Cubic Metres  Is a measure of volume calculated by multiplying the thickness by the width by the linear length of timber. All dimension in metres. 
   
Cup   Where the timber bends, most common on back-sawn boards and where a concave curvature across the grain occurs. 
   
DAR  Timber that has been dressed all round ie on all surfaces. 
   
Decay  Decomposition of wood by fungi. 
   
Density  One of the measures for the structural and mechanical properties of timber expressed as weight per unit volume, e.g. in kilograms per cubic metre.
   
Dressed timber  Timber finished to a smooth surface on one or more surfaces. 
   
Drying  Where moisture is evaporated or extracted from timber. Rate of drying has a major effect on the quality and quantity of the timber recovered. 
   
Durability  A standard classification for species as to the length of time the timber will last in the ground or be exposed to the weather before decay takes place and the timber loses its structural strength. 
   
E/M  End Matched boards that have T&G on the end as well. 
   
End split  A split at the end of a piece of timber or a log. 
   
Face  The wide surface of a square-sawn, hewn or dressed timber, veneer, plywood, on which the grade or quality is judged. 
   
F Grades: A stress grade of timber for which the specific suite of design properties is given by Australian Standard AS1720.1. 
   
Figure  The appearance of a wood surface due to its anatomical features, such as grain or texture, or variation in colour. 
   
Finished Size  The actual dimension of a piece of timber after it has been dressed. 
   
FJ  Finger Jointed timber comprises lengths of timber joined end to end utilising a micro-sized finger (joint) employing an adhesive whose strength and potential overall length is increased through the gluebonds. 
   
Flitch  A section of timber which has been sawn from a log. 
   
Flooring Boards prepared for use in flooring by machining to a standard thickness and usually profiling a tongue along one edge and a matching groove along the other edge. 
   
Framing timber  Timber used to form the basic structure of a building. 
   
Gauged  Timber with a smooth, even surface that has been dressed to a precise size. 
   
Grain  The general direction of the fibres or wood elements relative to the main axis of the piece. Grain may be cross, diagonal, interlocking, spiral or straight. 
   
Green timber  Colloquial term for timber which is newly cut and still has a high moisture content. Technically known as unseasoned timber. 
   
Growth ring  A ring sometimes visible on the cross-section of a trunk or branch marking a (usually annual) cycle of growth. It is visible because of the conspicuous difference between its latewood portion and its earlywood 
   
Gum veins or pockets  Gum production is a natural protection response to injury especially in hardwoods and eucalyptus. The presence of pockets of gum can reduce the strength of timber. 
   
Hardwood  Technically, hardwoods are woods from trees classed as 'flowering' plants as opposed to conifers. The timber of conifers is known as softwood. Some 'hardwoods' such as balsa are soft; some 'softwoods' such as yew are very hard. 
   
Heartwood  The mature part of timber in a tree the inner zone of dead wood. It provides the structural support for the plant. Its cells contain tannins, phenols and other substances, many of which inhibit fungal activity and render heartwood more durable than sapwood. 
   
 Interlocking grain   In timber, where a double spiral effect is caused by the alternate bands of growth having their fibres oriented in opposite directions. 
   
Joint group  The structural use of the timber in the Timber Engineering Structures Standard, and the Residential Timber Framed Construction Standard. 
   
Kerf  A saw cut. 
   
Kiln  A chamber used for drying timber, in which the temperature and humidity of the circulating air can be suitably controlled. 
   
Kiln dried  Of timber, seasoned in a kiln usually to a specified or selected moisture content. 
   
Knot  A section of a branch which is embedded in the wood of a tree trunk or of a large branch. It may be 'live' or 'dead'; in the latter case, it may be loose. 
   
Linear Metres  Is a measure of length that ignores the thickness and width of a piece of timber. 
   
Lyctids  'Powderpost' beetles. The larvae of these borer beetles which attack the starch-containing sapwood of certain hardwood species, reducing it to a fine flour-like powder. They do not attack the heartwood and they cannot attack softwood timber at all. The commonest species in eastern Australia is Lyctus brunneus. 
   
Milled timber  Timber produced from a log which has been sawn. 
   
MGP  Determines the stress grade of Pine by mechanical methods. 
   
Moisture content   A measure of the available water in a piece of timber. Wood normally increases in strength with drying. 
   
Nominal Size  The sawn size of a piece of timber before the timber is dressed. The nominal size is greater than the actual or finished dimension. 
   
Quarter-sawing  Where the log is turned to produce boards at a right angle to the grain. Used to produce boards of high-strength quality or where the figure is to be exposed. 
   
Resin  A sticky exudates produced in specialised microscopic structures called resin ducts in conifer timber, although also in some 'hardwood' families such as the Dipterocarpaceae.
   
Rough sawn  Surface condition of wood as it leaves the saw. 
   
Rougher Headed  Timber that is dressed down with a fine rippled finish. 
   
Sapwood  The living, immature outer wood of a tree. As its inner layers die they become heartwood. 
   
Sawn  Timber that has not been gauged or dressed. 
   
Scantling  Timber of small rectangular or square cross-section used in construction, such as rafters. 
   
Seasoned timber  Timber dried to a stable moisture content of 10 to 15%. 
   
Shrinkage  The dimensional difference between green timber and timber dried to a moisture content of 12%, normally given as a percentage of shrinkage of the radial and tangential faces of a piece of timber. 
   
Softwood  A wood, regardless of weight and hardness, which comes form a coniferous tree.
   
Species  The basic unit of biological classification. With rare exceptions, a species may be defined as an interbreeding group of biological organisms, that is isolated reproductively from all other organisms. 
   
Strength Groups  S = unseasoned. There are seven groups ranging downward from S1 to S7. SD = seasoned. There are eight groups ranging downward from SD1 to D8. 
   
Stress grade  A means of grading a piece of timber for structural purposed by means of visual or mechanical methods. Primarily it is used to indicate the basic working stress in bending, to assist in design structure and, by implication, the basic working stresses for other properties used in engineering design. 
   
Strip  A small piece of sawn or dressed timber of rectangular or squared crosssection intended to separate boards in a seasoning stack. 
   
Structural timber  Timber selected for applications where strength is essential, as in building construction. 
   
T&G  Tongue & Grooved flooring where boards are joined along the length, one with a tongue and the other with a groove. 
   
Termites  Insects belonging to the order Isoptera; they are very active destroyers of woody material in the tropical and subtropical zones of the world. 
   
 Timber  Milled wood in a form suitable for construction or carpentry or joinery or for reconversion for manufacturing purposes. 
   
 TopNail & Secret Nail  Some species and board widths of T&G flooring are offered in a choice of top nail or secret nail profiles. As the name describes, top nail boards are installed with nails through the top surface, while secret nail profiles are installed with nails through the tongue, and are thus hidden by the adjoining board. 
   
Trade name  Commercial trading name for a specific timber. It may or may not differ from thecommonname used by foresters and the lay public. 
   
Truewood   Timber which is newly cut and still has a high moisture content.
   
R/S   Rough sawn  
   
SED Small end diameter (for round poles)  
   
Selected   Lengths selected to order  

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